Northern District of California Judges' Decisions
Subject: Memorandum of Decision Re: Discharge of Injunction
Judge's Name: Judge Alan Jaroslovsky
DO NOT PUBLISH This case disposition has no value as precedent and is not intended
for publication. Any publication, either in print or electronically, is contrary
to the intent and wishes of the court.
IN THE UNITED STATES BANKRUPTCY COURT
FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA
In re GERALD ARMSTRONG,
CHURCH OF SCIENTOLOGY INTERNATIONAL,
GERALD ARMSTRONG, Defendant.
A.P. No. 95-1164
Memorandum of Decision
Debtor and defendant Gerald Armstrong is a former member and official of plaintiff
Church of Scientology. The two have been at odds with each other for many years,
with Armstrong on a crusade to discredit Scientology and Scientology bent on discrediting
Armstrong in return. In 1986, the parties settled a state court lawsuit in which
Armstrong claimed damages for harassment by Scientology. Pursuant to the terms
of the settlement, Armstrong received $800,000.00. In return, he agreed to cease
his activities against Scientology. The settlement contained a liquidated damages
provision calling for $50,000.00 in damages for each breach by Armstrong. In the
early 1990's, Armstrong began to violate the terms of the settlement by voluntarily
resuming his crusade against Scientology. Scientology commenced a lawsuit to enforce
the agreement, and has obtained a judgment from the state court in the amount
of $300,000.00 in liquidated damages and a permanent injunction prohibiting Armstrong
from continuing his activities against Scientology. By this adversary proceeding,
Scientology seeks a determination that its $300,000.00 liquidated damages claim
is nondischargeable and that Armstrong's obligation under the settlement to refrain
from acting against Scientology is nondischargeable and continues to be enforceable
after Armstrong's Chapter 7 bankruptcy, which Armstrong filed on April 19, 1995.
Scientology also seeks to deny Armstrong's discharge on the grounds that he has
failed to explain the dissipation of his assets and failed to schedule an interest
in a corporation wholly owned by him.
II. Objection to Discharge
Scientology argues that Armstrong should not be granted a discharge because
he has failed to explain the disposition of the settlement proceeds and because
he failed to schedule as an asset an interest in the Gerald Armstrong Corporation.
Scientology has not met its burden of proof as to either ground. Given the 10
years between the payment of the settlement and the bankruptcy, as well as Armstrong's
mental state as evidenced by his testimony, it is not surprising in the least
that he has none of the settlement proceeds left, nor is its dissipation any great
mystery. The fact he has nothing left is not a basis for denial of his discharge.
The argument concerning Armstrong's failure to schedule as an asset his interest
in the Gerald Armstrong Corporation is equally meritless for several reasons.
First, despite Armstrong's testimony in 1993 that he valued the corporation at
$1 billion, it is clear that the stock is worthless to anyone other than him.
Second, there can have been no intent to conceal it because Scientology knew all
about it. Third, the existence of the corporation was in fact scheduled, albeit
in the wrong place. Fourth, Armstrong voluntarily brought up his interest in the
corporation at his meeting of creditors without any suggestion on anyone's part
that he had omitted it.
III. Dischargeability of Liquidated Damages for Prepetition Conduct
Scientology did not address the issue of dischargeability of the liquidated
damages in its evidence or its brief, although it did ask in closing argument
that these damages be declared nondischargeable along with associated attorneys'
fees. The court sees no basis for this claim. Damages for breach of contract,
even when the contract was intentionally breached, are fully dischargeable. In
re Risco, 978 F.2d 1151 (9th Cir.1992). The term "liquidated damages"
is itself a contract term. Scientology did not establish that anything Armstrong
did was inherently wrongful or tortious, aside from breaching his agreement not
to do them. In order for a breach of contract to be nondischargeable under section
523(a)(6) of the Code, it must be accompanied by malicious and willful tortious
conduct. Id. at 1154. No such conduct has been shown in this case.
IV. Dischargeability of Permanent Injunction
While a literal reading of section 101(5)(B) of the Bankruptcy Code seems to indicate
that the right to seek injunctive relief to enforce the settlement is dischargeable
because breach gives rise to a right to liquidated damages, it is clear from the
subsequent acts of the state court that liquidated damages are not Scientology's
exclusive remedy for breach. The state court has issued a permanent injunction,
and it is clear from case law that the right to such injunctive relief survives
bankruptcy. In re Udell, 18 F.3d 403 (7th Cir.1994); In re Irizarry,
171 B.R. 874 (9th Cir.BAP 1994). V. Dischargeability of Sanctions for Violation
of Permanent Injunction It does not appear that the state court has up to this
point issued and monetary sanctions for violation of its injunction. Any such
monetary sanctions are a lawful exercise of the court's contempt powers, and would
be nondischargeable. See In re Allison, 176 B.R. 60, 64 (Bkrtcy.S.D.Fla.1994),
and cases therein cited. While Scientology may not at this late date go back and
seek to turn liquidated damages to contempt sanctions, any postpetition violation
of the permanent injunction may be enforced by the state court pursuant to its
contempt powers without violating the bankruptcy discharge. VI. Conclusion Armstrong
is entitled to a discharge. Liquidated damages for his prepetition conduct are
dischargeable. However, the permanent injunction remains enforceable notwithstanding
the discharge and may be enforced by the state court as it sees fit notwithstanding
Armstrong's bankruptcy. The court will enter a judgment to that effect. Each side
shall bear its own attorneys' fees and costs. This memorandum constitutes the
court's findings and conclusions pursuant to FRCP 52(a) and FRBP 7052. Counsel
for Scientology shall submit an appropriate form of judgment forthwith.
Dated: February 16, 1996 _______________________
U.S. Bankruptcy Judge
Northern District of California